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 Solar System

ial, helvetica, sans-serif" width="143" class="q">   Saturn
Equatorial Radius (km)
Orbital Period
in days
Semi-major axis
of orbit in AU


  Solar Radius     696,000    

Astronomical Unit = AU = 149,597,870 km

Velocity of Light (in a vacuum) 
c = 299,792,458 meters per second
   = 186,282.4 miles per second.      

Solar System Size Comparison Poster by Starry Night Store

 Earth and Moon



  Earth, Radius, Equatorial

3963.19245606 mi.
6,378,140 m

  Earth, Circumference, Equatorial

24,901.4726094 mi.
40,075,035.5351 m

  Earth, Circumference, Mean

24,873.492365 mi.
40,030,005.6967 m

  Earth, Arc Degree, Mean

69.0933962964 mi.
111,1950.42769 m

  Earth, Radius, Mean

3958.73926185 mi.
6,370,973.27862 m

  Earth, Radius, Polar

3949.90462476 mi.
6,356,755.28816 m

  Flattening, axis ratio


  Flattening inverse


  Flattening of the Earth


  Inclination, Lunar Orbit, Mean


  Wobble, Lunar Orbit Inclination

± 0.0025°

  Moon, Distance

384,399,070 m

  Lunar Orbit Eccentricity


  Moon, Radius, Mean

1,738,000 m

  Obliquity of the Ecliptic


  Solar distance

149,597,870,000 m

  Geographical Mile

1,855.32571922 m


Saros Cycle is an eclipse cycle of 242 nodal months, 223 synodic periods, 239 anomalistic months and 17 eclipse years.

242 x 27.21222 = 6585.357425
223 x 29.53059 = 6585.321321
239 x 27.55455 = 6585.536614
19 x 346.62006 = 6585.781197

Metonic Cycle is a cycle that produces the same phase of the moon on the same date of the tropical year every 19 years.

235 x 29.53059 = 6939.688388
255 x 27.21222 = 6939.116295
19 x 365.24219 = 6939.601660


in degrees

Lunar Motion per Mean Rotation


Mean Daily Lunar Motion


Solar Orbit per Day


Solar Orbit per Sidereal Rotation


Solar Orbit per Nodal Month


Solar Orbit per Sidereal Month


Solar Orbit per Synodic Month


Periodicity Formulas

Sidereal Orbit

(365.25636042 + 1.1 x 10-7 TE) days

Tropical Year

(365.24219878 - 6.14 x 10-6 TE) days

Eclipse Year

(346.620031 + 3.2 x 10-5 TE) days

Anomalistic Year

(365.25964134 + 3.04 x 10-6 TE) days

Sidereal Lunar Orbit

(27.3216610 - 2.0 x 10-7 T) days

Lunar Mean Daily Sidereal Motion

(13.1763582975 - 1.0224 x 10-8 T)°

Lunar Synodical Period

(29.5305992 - 2.0 x 10-7 T) days

Centenial General Precession Longitude

(1.396291666... + 0.0006180555...T)°

Given TE = Julian centuries from day 0.5, 1900 ET
Given T = Tropical centuries from 1900.0 N


Sidereal Orbit is a revolution relative to a fixed celestial position.
Sidereal Noon is the instant of transit of mean equinox relative to a fixed meridian position.
Fundamental Epoch
of Sidereal Time
(FE) is the instant 12 hours, 0 days, 1900 years A.D. with hours in mean sidereal time.
Ephemeris Time is the actual count of solar days from a fixed meridian.
Tropical Year (YT) is the period from equinox to equinox.
Eclipse Year (YE) is the period between the earth and lunar orbit planes node crossings.
Temporal Unit (TU) is 36,525 mean solar days since Jan. 0.5, 1900, UT.
Greenwich Mean
Sidereal Time (GT)
= 0.0 hours UT = 12 hours + aFMS
Universal Time (UT) has replaced Mean Solar Time due to a recognition of the non-uniform rotation rate of the earth.
Lunar Synodic Period (S9) is the period of time from one full or new moon to another, that is the time between consecutive alignments of the sun, earth and moon on a plane perpendicular to the plane of solar revolution.
Precession (PR) is the retrograde rotation of the earth's axis relative to fixed celestial reference.
Annual Parallax is the viewpoint difference due to the change in the earth's position relative to the sun. For the nearest star the angle is about 0.000222.°
Annual Aberration is the angular shift in apparent position resulting from motion velocity of viewing from orbiting (moving) earth.
Diurnal Parallax is the viewpoint difference due to the rotation of the earth. The amount varies with the latitude of the observer.
Diurnal Aberration is the result of observing from a spining observing position on the surface of the earth. Velocity of the observer causes apparent shift to a maximum correction of about 0.0008333° at the equator.
Atmospheric Refraction is the bending of light rays by the earth's atmosphere.


Mass of the Sun = 1.9891 x 1030 kg
Mass of the Earth
= 5.974 x 1024 kg
Mass of the Moon
= 7.348031948 x 1022 kg



According to Harleston*, he principle unit of measurement as used by Teotihuanacos was a length of  1.059463 metres.  Translated into feet this is 3.47593ft and is accurate to within one part in 19,000 of the double royal Egyptian cubit of 3.4757485ft, in later works he refined the figure still further to be correct to within five decimal places of this length, of which he was at that time unaware.  
He called the measure a
hunab, which in the Aztec language means "unified measure", and the hunab is exactly eight to seven of the Aztec betan, which means "yard".


Table of ancient measurement units and origins (compiled by Jim Allen*)

1 English inch = 25.399772mm taken as 25.4mm

1 English inch = 1/500,000 part of Earth's polar diameter
half inch = 1,000,000,000 part of Earth's polar diameter

1 palm = 3 inches
1 pound weight was originally the weight of a cube of 3 x 3 x 3 inches filled with water
a cubic foot originally weighed 64lbs and contained 8 gallons
a modern cubic foot weighs 62.137lbs and contains 6.2 gallons


  • English 12.0" (304.8mm) derived from polar diameter
  • Saxon 13.2" (335.3mm) 20 Sumerian shusi
  • Roman (1) 13.18" (335.0mm) similar to Saxon foot
  • Roman (2) 11.65" (295.9mm) 24/25ths of the Greek foot
  • Paris (1) 12.785" (324.74mm) 1/6th of toise diameter of wheel
  • Paris (2) 12.789" (324.84mm) diameter of wheel
  • Russian 14.0" (355.6mm) diameter of wheel
  • Greek 12.136" (308.3mm) Greece latitude
  • Babylon 12.126" (308.0mm) Babylon latitude and Phoenicia
  • Egypt (1) 12.118" (307.8mm) Egypt latitude
  • Egypt (2) 11.81" (300.0mm) circumference as pi 3141592653
  • Remen 14.58" (370.3mm) mean of latitudes


  • Egyptian Royal (1) 20.62" (523.7mm) circumference of earth in atur
  • Egyptian Royal (2) 20.6264" (523.9mm) diameter of earth in atur
  • Egyptian Royal (3) 20.669" (525.0mm) circumference as pi 3141592653
  • EgyptianRoyal (4) 20.72" (526.3mm) circumference as 40,000,000mtrs
  • Sumerian 19.8" (502.9mm) 24/25ths of Egyptian Royal cubit
  • Greek 18.205" (462.4mm) Greece latitude
  • Babylon 18.1889" (462.0mm) Babylon latitude and Phoenicia
  • Egypt Geographic(1) 18.177" (461.7mm) Egypt latitude
  • Egypt Geographic(2) 17.716" (450.0mm) circumference as pi 3141592653
  • Sacred Cubit = 25 inches
  • Great Cubit = 30 inches = sacred cubit of 25" plus a hand of 5"

Megalithic Yard

  • Britain 2.72ft 32.64" (829.0mm) year of 365¼ days
  • Sumeria 2.750ft 33.0" (838.2mm) year of 360 days
  • India 2.750ft 33.0" (838.2mm) year of 360 days
  • Peru 2.750ft 33.0" (838.2mm) year of 360 days
  • Statute Mile 5280ft or 8 furlongs of 240 Sumerian yards

Geographic Mile

  • 6076.8884ft mean of meridians latitude
  • 6056.97ft Egypt middle latitude
  • 6062.99ft Babylon latitude
  • 6068.46ft Greece latitude
  • 6046.3418ft equatorial latitude
  • 6087.268ft equatorial longitude
  • 6107.7755ft polar latitude
  • Nautical mile 6080.00ft Admiralty sea mile
1 Sumerian shusi = 0.66"
10 Sumerian Shusi = 6.6" = 1 hand
12 Sumerian Shusi = 7.2" = 1 link
20 Sumerian shusi = 13.2" = 1 foot
30 Sumerian Shusi = 19.8" = 1 cubit
50 Sumerian Shusi = 33.0" = 1 Sumerian yard
100 Sumerian Shusi = 66.0" = 1 double Sumerian yard

1 acre = 600 x 60 Sumerian feet = 36,000 sq Sumerian feet
1 acre = 660 x 66 English feet = 43,560 sq English feet
1 pole = 15 Sumerian feet
1 pole = 16.5 English feet
1 chain = 20 Sumerian feet
1 chain = 22 English feet
1 furlong = 600 Sumerian feet
1 furlong = 660 English feet

1 Royal cubit of 21 inches rolls out a double Sumerian yard of 66" or 2 Sumerian yards

1 metre = 1/10,000,000 part of the Earth's quadrant circumference
1 litre = a cube of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm
1 kilogram = the weight of a cube of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm filled with water

[* Source: Historic Atlantis in Bolivia]
Related links: Measurements and Units


Archaeoastronomy Articles on our website:

HOT  The Digital Orrery

The digital orrery created by Piotr Kaczmarek. It is too detailed to be embedded in this article, so click on the screen capture below to load it in a new window.
This is one of the best solar system simulators we know!

Digital Orrery

Within the application you can view the solar system according to the Copernican (sun-centered) or Tychonian (earth-centered) model. You can rotate the system by clicking and dragging on the outer ring, or let it move automatically by adjusting a slider in the top left.


HOT  The Photographer's Ephemeris

The Photographer’s Ephemeris (TPE) is a free application for Mac/Windows/Linux designed for landscape photographers.

It shows you the exact direction of where the sunrise and moonrise will be at any particular location and time using Google maps. Landscape photographers typically wishing to plan their shoots around the times of sunrise/sunset or twilight, or alternatively when the moon is in a particular place or a particular phase. Click on the logo to learn more and download this free program.

See screenshots below (click to enlarge):

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