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Construction Theories - Part 2

Ancient Mystery: Vitrified and Moulded Rocks

Note: This article is presented with permission.
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Perfect fitting, vitrified and moulded rocks

Many rocks have a strange look in Cusco and surroundings. As if they once were soft and have been moulded to give them form. They have a finish that gives them a look as a mirror, with a strong reflection, a shine, sometimes like metal or glass. Omnipresent in all vestiges, but only seen in two of the three construction styles. In the latest construction style, according to Alfredo Gamarra belonging to the Inca's, no vitrification is observed, but only stones treated with hammer and chisel, giving as a result walls in which the stones do not fit perfectly.

The 'Sacred Rocks' of the first style

Of the other two styles, the first one is the style were rock in situ was treated. The appearance is like cut cheese or butter. Many times large pieces of stone are removed and the finish is perfect, with forms that appear like our modern package material (foam), with rounded internal corners. The rocks like that can be found in all vestiges considered Inca, and normally in the centre or below the other 2 styles. We can find these treated rocks also in many other places without the other 2 styles. Often they form something like an altar, and till present times they are places were people make offerings and do the worshipping to the earth or ''Pacha Mama''.

The second style of perfect fitting stones that once were soft

The second style is the style of the perfect fitting stones. Walls were not even a needle enters between the stoneblocks. They can be found in different forms and sizes, but the general characteristic is the perfect fit. Also these stones have a part that is vitrified, this is at the borders. Sometimes also on other parts of the stoneblocks we can recognize vitrification. Another characteristic of these walls is the blueprint that the upperlaying stones left on the lower laying stones, as if the weight of the upper stones gave the print in the once softer underlying stones.

Orthodox science has no convincing explanation

These two styles can clearly be identified. For the eye the moulding and vitrification are obvious once you know how and where to look. Still orthodox science has other explanations. We have to realize though that there are just a few investigations that really gave importance to this phenomena. A serious investigation with includes anayzing stones etc. did not happen as far as I know, except maybe Protzen, who said he can reach similar results with polishing. He did that with only Andesite as a small proof. I do not consider polishing as a serious option to explain all the observed phenomena. The option that Alfredo Gamarra speaks about, with stones having been moulded and vitrified, is more logic. Some special technique must have been used by the ancients to be able to reach these astonishing results.

A list of arguments in favor of a special technique

So definitely a special technique was used, a conclusion that is based on the following arguments:

  • All the time the melted look is present and obvious.
  • The reflection is strong.
  • A layer is present at the surface where the vitrifcation is visible, sometimes the layer is interrupted because of some damage that occurred, and there this layer is clearly visible as a small ´film´ over the stone, this is independently of he type of rock.
  • The surface is completely smooth for the touch in all cases, although the surface can be irregular (so it would have been extremely difficult to polish this irregular surface).
  • The scale and the repetition and the form of the phenomena is such that the factor time and the difficulty to reach the precision doing it with carving and polishing, must be considered as ''not very probable'' and ''absolutely not common sense''. Useless for the Incas to do these kind of things and to spend so much time.
  • Others have shown that many of these stones are magnetic, so something special happened with these rocks.
  • The color on the treated rocks many times is different compared with the same but not treated rock nearby.
  • On the perfect fitting stone walls we see very small pieces of stone of lower blocks, entering to occupy the small space between the upper laying blocks, as if the weight of the upper laying blocks pressed the once soft stone below to go there, these very thin pieces of rock would have been broken if polishing and smashing with other stones or using metal tools would have been the method of construction. This can be observed in the walls of Koricancha for example.
  • Repeated observation of all the phenomena mentioned above in all so called Inca vestiges, which includes different types of stone, and both construction styles: the walls with perfect fitting stones and the rocks 'in situ'.

A few more considerations

1. A scientist that did detect vitrification was late prof. Watkins. He said:
The rock surfaces on Inca stones are similar to those that have been thermally disaggregated. Indeed, some of the slick surfaces on the Inca building stones are glazed, so it becomes apparent that the Incas must have used thermal disaggregation.

2. Metal Clamps and T-grooves.
The use of Metal Clamps in T-Grooves happened in Tiahuanaco, Ollantaytambo, Koricancha and the site of Yuroc Rumi, Vilcabamba. Also in Egypt the use of clamps was found. The grooves appear to be limited to the most monumental structures, as the size of the blocks in which they were used is huge. At the site of Pumapunku, Tiahuanaco, a number of grooves still can be observed. Some say the metal of these clamps is from a very special alley, others say it is of a composition that is perfectly normal for the bronze technology of the Tiahuanaco culture.

The interpretation of the use.

Why would the builders use or need a small metal clamp to hold large stone blocks in place? This is the reason that some consider that the clamps were for ceremonial use, as the effect for construction use would be very limitted, namely the size of the blocks is too big compared with the size of the T-grooves and clamps. See: http://www.adventurespecialists.org/tgroove.html 

But Alfredo Gamarra said that the perfect fitting blocks do so because they were moldable on the moment of construction. If Alfredo was right, one can imagine that especially bigger blocks were more difficult to treat, as the weight of the clay-like block would have given problems to keep them in place, and the clay could have had the tendency to deform. The clamps would have served for keeping the blocks together, so they would harden out in the right position. The observation that the groove has been polished is important here. The same can be observed on the borders of the stones of the perfect fitting walls. Some technology with heat was applied to give form and strength to the construction. This means the shine is not because of polishing, but would be vitrification. The same counts for the T-Grooves. From the picture of the stoneblock with the T-groove in Ollantaytambo, it can be observed that also a bigger part of the stone is vitrified, not only the part of the groove.

Is this conclusion of vitrified and moldable stones the same as with the theory of the geopolymeres of the pyramids in Egypt?

No, this is not the same as where the Frenchman Joseph Davidovits is speaking about. He indicates that stones of the great pyramid were made out of cement, or geopolymeres. See: http://www.davidovits.info/category/english . But there are interesting coincidences with Alfredo Gamarra's ideas:

  • Stone on the moment of construction was soft and moldable.
  • Because of this the stones fit perfectly.

But the differences are:

  • The construction style of perfect fitting stones has been done with different types of stone, what means that for every type of stone there should have been a formula for the making of cement. Something that is much more complicated, so less probable as an explanation.
  • The use of cement is not completely logical; why has each stone another form and size? More logical it would have been to use a mold and in this way a standard size of stone, to make the construction- work easier.

The proposal of Alfredo Gamarra means that every stone can be unique in size and form, but that at the same time, without any complications, they fit perfectly together. Making a mold for each stone would have made the work unnecessarily more laborous and more complicated.

Vitrification is everywhere, see more pictures below and the video in our chapter 'Vitrified Stone', a courtesy from the DVD.

As stated before, vitrification is to be seen in all the Inca vestiges. See the pictures on the right and the video below. The video is a courtesy, so you can get an impression of our video 'The Cosmogony of the 3 worlds' and the interesting and fascinating information and images that you can expect in this documentary. On the DVD  this chapter is to be seen in full DVD quality of course.

For your information: in this example chapter of the DVD, two terms are mentioned that might be unknown to you:

  1. The Hanan Pacha time period. This is a reference to the first orbit with human life. A time with less gravity, when the earth was closer to the sun. Speaking about the 'Sacred Rocks' of the first style, we refer to this period. The constructions were made in the rocks themselves, those rocks that nowadays form the base of many ancient vestiges. Especially those of the Inca's, but also in Egypt and other places. See 'Other ancient cultures'.
  2. The Uran Pacha time period. This is the next period, in which the style of perfect fitting walls was made. This period was before our present period.

In both periods, vitrification was used, which can be observed on the video:

On our DVD  this is one of the chapters.
Which other chapters are to be seen on the DVD, you can read here:
The Cosmogony of the 3 worlds.

 The archaeological proofs on a DVD , explaining the ancient mysteries of the Inca vestiges.

Order DVD Here >>

Vitrification Examples


Sacsayhuaman is the famous Inca fortress just above Cusco. But what most people only get to see of it are the walls with giant stones. The Sacsayhuaman archaeological parque is much bigger and if you know where to go and how to look, you will be able to find many surprising places. For example the X zone, named so because Jesús Gamarra started to use this name, the 'rodaderos', a kind of natural fairground slide, the big rock named 'la Chincana Grande', where they say tunnels start, towards for example Koricancha. For now, as part of the vitrification section, below we will show some vritrifed stones that can be found between the rodaderos and the Chincana grande.

Vitrified rocks in Sacsayhuaman.

Near the Throne of the Inca and the rodaderos.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

A completely rough rock with just a very small vitrified part on it, as if they passed an iron.
Notice the different colour of the smooth and vitrified part.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

With the right light, a tremendous reflection can be observed on this vitrified piece of rock.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

The same rock, although the upper part does not reflect as no light falls on it, it is still
possible to observe the smoothness, and the look as if it has been melted once.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

Here the layer can be observed, giving a strong reflection were it is still on the stone.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

Another example of some vitrified stones in Sacsayhuaman, one from a protected rock and the second case on the video is a small tunnel, which is completely vitrified inside: link: http://www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com/vitrified-rocks.html#sacsayvitr01 

A very especial effect we noticed when we were editing a video that we recorded of the monument called 'the Inca Throne' in Sacsayhuaman. It was only after we checked the tape at home that we realized that we captured this rainbow effect with our lens. It might have to do with the vitrified state of this famous part of Sacsayhuaman, and that the light was refracted because of that. See the upper border of the monument. link: http://www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com/vitrified-rocks.html#incathrone 

More Sacsayhuaman Photos >>


Ollantaytambo is an excellent site in the Sacred Valley of the Incas, here all kinds of vitrified and moulded stones can be observed.

The famous perfect fit, there is refection, smooth parts 
and a different colour to be observed.especially at the borders.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

More Photos by Jan Peter de Jong >>

The Moon Temple

The moontemple is located in the Sacsayhuaman archaeological parque. Very strange structures can be found here, including some caves, a type of altar, and heavily shining surfaces (vitrified rock) and pieces of the rock that look like they cut big parts out of the mountain as if it was a giant cheese. A snake form in the rock can be found too.

Vitrified borders on the wall inside the cave.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

This altar looks as if a layer with a metallic sheen once covered it.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

This snake form made in the wall of the cave also shows the 'shine',
although the surface is very irregular. © www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

The altar inside the cave, still used for offerings to the 'Pacha Mama'.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

Another picture of the altar, which shows the melted look.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

This rock is strongly vitrified with a very smooth and reflecting surface, inside of the cave.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com


Kenko is close to Cusco and practically part of the Sacsayhuaman archaeological parque. It has one big rock with a lot of structures made in it. Also there are some features inside this rock with altars, in a sort of cave. Spectaculary vitrifed stones can be observed here, with the moulded look and with a layer that can be observed clearly.

Protected by a rock 'roof', much of the vitrified layer is still to be seen,
as erosion had not much chance. © www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

This rock or altar is spectaculary vitrified.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

Loreto street

Loreto street is a small street leaving from the Plaza de Armas, the central square in the centre of Cusco. It should be a tipical example of Inca masonry if orthodox archaeology is to be believed. But a closer analisis can show how much difference there is between the walls on both sides of the streets. On one side the wall is the style of the Inca's according to Alfredo Gamara's definition; there are no perfect fits and the stones were treated with hammer and chisel. The other side shows us a wall with perfect fitting stoneblocks and moulded and vitrified stones. This can be observed by day, and by night with the help of the street lights.

A small vitrified part on a stoneblock. The borders of these stones are all vitrified also.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

On this picture the vitrified borders can be  seen clearly.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com


The famous Inca temple of the sun in the centre of Cusco. There is a museum that has many strange rocks to show us. We got special permission to take pictures and video. That is to be seen on our DVD . Here we present some vitrified stones, that also here can be recognized.

A vitrified stoneblock in a wall inside of Koricancha.
© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com


Chinchero is a beautiful village. There is also a great vestige, with all the characteristics of the other vestiges in and near Cusco. It's just off the road that goes from Cusco to the Sacred Valley, at only 30 kilometres from Cusco.

A vitrified and moulded stoneblock, Plaza de Armas Chinchero.

© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com

The archaeological proofs on a DVD,
explaining the ancient mysteries of the Inca vestiges.
Order DVD Here >>

© www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com
This article is presented with permission.
Article Source: http://www.ancient-mysteries-explained.com/vitrified-rocks.html

Construction Theories: Part  1 >>




The Tiwanaku : Portrait of an Andean Civilization (Peoples of America)
by Alan L. Kolata

Kolata's book shows how, contrary to their implicit racism, the indigenous people of the Titicaca basin were more than ingenious enough to come up with ways to construct major monuments, carve incredible fantastic stone sculptures, and make the high arid plain of the altiplano bloom with potatoes, tubers and quinoa. These people had indoor plumbing and public sewage systems 1500 years ago! The Tiwanaku is a bit simplistic and general for the Andean or archaeological specialist; it is more appropriate for the first year University student or educated layman. Nonetheless, it brings together the current general state of knowledge about this important civilization in a highly readable fashion.

Valley of the Spirits : A Journey into the Lost Realm of the Aymara
by Alan L. Kolata

A millennium before the Incas built their empire, the city of Tiahuanaco sat at the center of a great empire of its own. Located on Lake Titicaca, the world's highest at 13,000 feet, in what is now Bolivia, at the very limits of agriculture, the people of Tiahuanaco developed an ingenious system of cultivation based on raised planting beds alternating with trenches that served as irrigation ditches. From A.D. 400 to 800, the temples of Tiahuanaco glittered with gold and the empire supported as many as 250,000 people. Kolata, who has spent more than 17 years excavating the empire's ruins, weaves together the story of Tiahuanaco and the region's modern inhabitants, the Aymara.

Lukurmata by Marc Bermann

Household archaeology, together with community and regional settlement information, forms the basis for a unique local perspective of Andean prehistory in this study of the evolution of the site of Lukurmata, a pre-Columbian community in highland Bolivia. First established nearly two thousand years ago, Lukurmata grew to be a major ceremonial center in the Tiwanaku state, a polity that dominated the south-central Andes from a.d. 400 to 1200. After the Tiwanaku state collapsed, Lukurmata rapidly declined, becoming once again a small village. In his analysis of a 1300-year-long sequence of house remains at Lukurmata, Marc Bermann traces patterns and changes in the organization of domestic life, household ritual, ties to other communities, and mortuary activities, as well as household adaptations to overarching political and economic trends. Prehistorians have long studied the processes of Andean state formation, expansion, and decline at the regional level, notes Bermann.

Ancient Aliens (2009) DVD

Is it possible that intelligent life forms visited Earth thousands of years ago, bringing with them technology that drastically affected the course of history and man s own development? Presented in the 1968 bestselling book Chariots of the Gods by Erich von Daniken, the theory of ancient aliens rocked people s beliefs in mankind s progress. Ancient cave drawings of strange creatures, remains of landing strips in Peru, and Indian texts that describe the flying machines of the gods were just a few of the odd archaeological artifacts cited by von Daniken as proof that ancient astronauts were well known to our ancestors. Produced with the exclusive cooperation of von Daniken himself, Ancient Aliens launches all-new expeditions to seek out and evaluate this evidence, with a concentration on the latest discoveries of the last 30 years, including unusual DNA findings on man s evolution and newly decoded artifacts from Egypt to Syria to South America. It is a balanced investigation into a theory some believe cannot be true, but many agree cannot be ignored.

El enigma de Tiahuanaco
by P. Guirao


Inca Architecture and Construction at Ollantaytambo
by Jean-Pierre Protzen, Robert Batson (Illustrator)


In this book, Protzen describes and interprets the archaeological complex of Ollantaytambo, discovers temporal and functional links among its components, uncovers the planning and design criteria that governed its layout and architecture, and compiles all that has been written about the site.

Inca Architecture and Construction at Ollantaytambo

It is a modern-day mystery how the Inca, who did not have iron tools or knowledge of the wheel, mined and transported stones and dressed and fitted them in remarkable structures. Jean-Pierre Protzen has spent much of the past decade investigating the quarrying and stonecutting techniques of the Inca, and problems of Inca construction practices. His work is based principally on observation, careful measurements of structures, and experiments using stones and tools the Inca stonemasons would have used. Ollantaytambo, probably the best-preserved Inca town, offers an ideal laboratory with its well-thought-out site plans, its intimate integration of the built form with the natural environment, the unity of its architecture, and the sheer perfection of its cut-stone masonry. Offering the only extensive analysis of Inca construction practices, Protzen describes and interprets the archaeological complex of Ollantaytambo, discovers temporal and functional links among its components, uncovers the planning and design criteria that governed its layout and architecture, and compiles all that has been written about the site.

The Secret of the Incas - Myth, Astronomy, and the War Against Time

Step by step, Sullivan pieces together the hidden esoteric tradition of the Andes to uncover the tragic secret of the Incas, a tribe who believed that, if events in the heavens could influence those on earth, perhaps the reverse could be true. Anyone who reads this book will never look at the ruins of the Incas, or at the night sky, the same way again. Illustrations. (Note: This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.)

Between the Lines: The Mystery of the Giant Ground Drawings of Ancient
Anthony F. Aveni

Searching for Lost Worlds: Machu Picchu: Secrets of the Incan Empire (1999)

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Archaeoastronomy and Stonework at Sacsayhuaman, Peru, Perfect fitting stones, moulded rocks, vitrification
Pre-Inca megalithic stonework